What Are The Risks Of Sauna Use?

Saunas are a popular way to relax and rejuvenate your body, but have you ever wondered about the potential risks they may carry? We’ll explore the possible dangers of using saunas and how they can impact your health. From overheating to dehydration, understanding these risks will help you make informed decisions about your sauna sessions. So, grab a towel and let’s uncover the potential hazards that might be lurking in your favorite sweat haven.

What Are The Risks Of Sauna Use?

Overview of Sauna Use

Definition of sauna

A sauna is a small room or enclosure designed to heat the body and induce sweating. It typically utilizes a heater, which generates heat that is absorbed by the surrounding surfaces, including the walls, floors, and benches. The temperature inside a sauna is typically between 70 and 100 degrees Celsius (160-212 degrees Fahrenheit), creating enough heat to make you sweat profusely.

Common types of saunas

There are various types of saunas available, each with its own unique features. Traditional saunas are heated with a wood or electric stove, while infrared saunas use special infrared heaters to create heat directly on the body. Steam saunas, on the other hand, generate heat by pouring water over heated rocks. Portable saunas are popular for home use and can be set up anywhere.

Benefits of sauna use

Saunas have been valued for their potential health benefits for centuries. Sauna use is believed to promote relaxation, relieve stress, and improve overall well-being. Additionally, it is thought to help with detoxification, muscle relaxation, pain relief, and improved cardiovascular health. It can also offer social and cultural benefits by serving as a place for socializing or taking part in traditional rituals.

Physical Risks of Sauna Use


One of the main risks associated with sauna use is dehydration. The high heat and humidity in saunas cause excessive sweating, leading to fluid loss from the body. It is important to drink plenty of water before, during, and after sauna sessions to stay hydrated and replenish the lost fluids.

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Exposure to extreme heat in saunas can lead to hyperthermia, a condition where the body temperature rises dangerously high. Prolonged or excessive sauna use, especially without adequate breaks and hydration, can push the body beyond its ability to regulate temperature, increasing the risk of heat-related illnesses.

Cardiovascular strain

While sauna use can have some benefits for the cardiovascular system, it also poses risks, particularly for individuals with heart conditions or high blood pressure. The intense heat in saunas can cause blood vessels to dilate, increasing the workload on the heart. This can potentially lead to cardiac strain or even heart attack in susceptible individuals.

Respiratory issues

Sauna use can also cause discomfort or respiratory issues for some individuals. Breathing in the hot, dry air in saunas may irritate the airways and worsen conditions, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using a sauna if you have any respiratory issues.

Skin-Related Risks of Sauna Use

Dry skin

Frequent sauna use can contribute to dry skin, as the high heat and humidity can strip the skin of its natural oils. This can leave the skin feeling dry, itchy, and flaky. To combat this, it is recommended to moisturize the skin regularly and avoid prolonged sauna sessions.

Heat rash

Heat rash, also known as prickly heat, can occur due to excessive sweating and clogged sweat ducts in the sauna. This can lead to the development of small, itchy bumps on the skin. Taking breaks during sauna sessions, using clean towels to wipe away sweat, and keeping the body cool and dry can help prevent heat rash.

Skin infections

The warm and humid environment of saunas can create a breeding ground for bacteria and fungi, increasing the risk of skin infections. It is crucial to maintain good hygiene and avoid sharing towels or equipment in saunas to reduce the risk of contracting skin infections such as athlete’s foot or ringworm.

Eye Risks of Sauna Use

Dry eyes

The dry heat in saunas can cause the eyes to become dry and irritated. This can lead to discomfort, redness, and a gritty sensation in the eyes. Using eye drops before and after sauna sessions can help alleviate dryness and keep the eyes lubricated.


In some cases, sauna use can irritate the delicate tissues of the eyes, causing itchiness, redness, or a burning sensation. This can be particularly problematic for individuals with underlying eye conditions or sensitivities. It is important to listen to your body and seek medical advice if you experience persistent eye irritation after sauna use.

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Potential damage

The extreme heat in saunas can potentially damage the eyes if precautions are not taken. Prolonged exposure to heat can increase the risk of cataracts or other eye conditions. Protecting the eyes by closing them or using a damp towel may help reduce the risk of potential eye damage.

What Are The Risks Of Sauna Use?

Pregnancy Risks of Sauna Use

Increased body temperature

Pregnant women should exercise caution when it comes to sauna use, as the increased body temperature from saunas can pose risks to the developing fetus. Elevating the core body temperature, especially during the first trimester, can potentially lead to birth defects or miscarriage.

Potential harm to the fetus

Heat stress on the developing fetus can cause neural tube defects and other developmental abnormalities. It is recommended for pregnant women to avoid sauna use entirely or at least limit exposure to prevent any potential harm to their unborn child.

Medication Interactions with Sauna Use

Certain medications may increase risks

Some medications, including antihypertensives, diuretics, and beta-blockers, can alter how the body responds to heat. This can potentially increase the risks associated with sauna use. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using a sauna if you are taking any medications to ensure your safety.

Talk to a healthcare professional before sauna use

If you have any concerns or are unsure about whether sauna use is safe for you, it is crucial to speak with a healthcare professional. They can assess your individual circumstances, taking into account your medical history and current medications, and provide guidance on whether sauna use is suitable and if any precautions need to be taken.

Risk of Accidents and Injuries in Saunas

Slips and falls

The hot, wet environment in saunas can make the floors slippery, increasing the risk of slips and falls. It is important to exercise caution when moving around in a sauna and use non-slip mats or towels on the floor to minimize the risk of accidents.


Direct contact with hot surfaces or steam in saunas can cause burns. It is important to be mindful of touching any heated surfaces and to avoid placing sensitive body parts, such as the face, directly in front of the steam outlet. Taking regular breaks and utilizing towels or benches as protective barriers can help prevent burns.

Fainting or loss of consciousness

The combination of high heat, dehydration, and prolonged sauna sessions can increase the risk of fainting or loss of consciousness. It is crucial to listen to your body, take breaks, and exit the sauna immediately if you start feeling lightheaded, dizzy, or excessively fatigued.

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Individual Factors Affecting Sauna Risks


Age plays a role in determining heat tolerance and the ability to withstand sauna conditions. Young children and older adults may be more vulnerable to the risks of sauna use due to their inability to regulate body temperature effectively. Care should be taken to ensure adequate hydration and monitor their well-being during sauna sessions.

Overall health condition

Individuals with pre-existing health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or hypertension, should exercise caution when using saunas. These conditions can affect the body’s response to heat, making sauna use potentially more risky. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using a sauna if you have any underlying health conditions.

Heat sensitivity

Heat sensitivity varies from person to person, with some individuals being more sensitive to high temperatures than others. People who are particularly sensitive to heat may experience discomfort or adverse effects at lower temperatures or in shorter sauna sessions. It is important to listen to your body’s signals and adjust sauna use accordingly.

Sauna Hygiene Risks

Bacterial and fungal infections

Saunas, especially public ones, can harbor bacteria and fungi that can cause infections. These microorganisms thrive in the warm and moist environment of saunas and can cause skin infections or respiratory issues. It is essential to choose saunas with good hygiene practices and to shower both before and after sauna use to minimize the risk of infections.

Sharing towels or equipment

Sharing towels or other sauna equipment can increase the risk of transmitting bacteria or fungi. It is important to use personal towels, bring your own clean sandals or flip flops, and avoid sharing items with others. By practicing good hygiene and using personal items, you can help reduce the risk of infections in saunas.

Unregulated or Unsafe Saunas

Poorly maintained saunas

Saunas that are not properly maintained can pose additional risks to users. Malfunctioning heaters, inadequate ventilation, or outdated wiring can create hazardous conditions. It is important to ensure that saunas are regularly inspected, meet safety standards, and are well-maintained to minimize the risk of accidents or unexpected incidents.

Lack of safety measures

Some saunas may lack essential safety measures, such as emergency exits, temperature regulation mechanisms, or adequate ventilation. Without these measures, the risk of accidents, overheating, or oxygen deficiency increases. Choosing reputable saunas that prioritize safety and adhere to regulatory guidelines is crucial to reduce the risks associated with sauna use.

In conclusion, sauna use offers various potential benefits for relaxation and overall well-being. However, it is important to be aware of the potential risks involved. Dehydration, hyperthermia, cardiovascular strain, respiratory issues, skin-related risks, eye risks, pregnancy risks, medication interactions, accidents and injuries, individual factors, sauna hygiene risks, as well as unregulated or unsafe saunas, all need to be considered.

By understanding these risks and taking necessary precautions, you can safely enjoy the therapeutic benefits of sauna use. Remember to consult with a healthcare professional, listen to your body, stay hydrated, and prioritize your safety when using saunas.